- Review Basic Principles of Escape and Evasion by Jeff Randall
- Review the US Navy and Marine Corps SERE Student Handbook
Introduction to Rural Evasion
There are major distinctions between operating in permissive and non-permissive environments prior to discovery and the threat of apprehension, and evasion. “Operating” presupposes only the threat of discovery by bad guys, and thus the limited choices to preserve the nature of covert or clandestine activities. You prevent discovery by properly operating in a tactical environment.
Evasion is the act of actively preventing being captured or killed after discovery, or at least after some evidence of your presence is discovered (i.e., evading enemy troops after your aircraft has been shot down). The Unibomber was operating from his cabin in Montana prior to capture prior to any possible evasion attempt. Christopher Dorner was operating until his vehicle was discovered in the Big Bear mountains, after which he was evading in a rural environment. Eric Frein was evading for all of the 48 days he was presumably on the run from nearly 1,500 highly trained law enforcement officers, aircraft, and tracking professionals. Eric Rudolph was a hybrid, essentially evading for the nearly five years he was on top of the FBI most wanted list but clearly having opportunities to operate.
The definition of evasion isdeception,
Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, and equipment.
Use all of your senses.
Remember where you are.
Vanquish fear and panic.
Improvise and improve.
Act like the natives.
Live by your wits.
- Assess immediate situation. Think before you act.
- Security: Take immediate action to protect yourself from conventional, nuclear, biological, or chemical threats.
- Seek a concealed site.
- Assess medical condition; treat life-threatening trauma immediately as necessary, other injuries when possible.
- Sanitize clothing and equipment of potentially compromising information.
- Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving.
- Apply personal camouflage.
- Move away from concealed site, a zigzag or random pattern is recommended.
- Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment.
- Find a hide site (may be improvised or a predetermined cache).
- Reassess situation; treat injuries, inventory equipment.
- Review plan of action; establish priorities
- Determine current location (if hasty or improvised).
- Improve camouflage.
- Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand.
- Execute plan of action but stay flexible
Select a place of concealment providing adequate concealment, from both ground and air search elements, and is a safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC).
- Establish listening and observation posts.
- Ensure multiple avenues of escape. Booby-trap is possible.
- Ensure protection from the environment (shelter).
- Determine possible communications/signaling opportunities/protocols (for friendly recovery operations).
- Stay alert, maintain security.
- Drink water.
- Travel slowly and deliberately.
- Do not leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline.
- Stay away from LOC’s.
- Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s).
- Move from one concealed area to another.
- Use evasion movement techniques
Communications and Signaling
- Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind.
- Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice.
- Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. Be prepared to move.
- Select site(s) in accordance with predetermined recovery plans.
- Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear.
- Select best area for communications and signaling devices.
- Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC.
- Follow recovery force instructions.
Planning. Guidelines for successful evasion include:
- Keeping a positive attitude.
- Using established procedures.
- Following your evasion plan of action.
- Being patient.
- Drinking water (do not eat food without water).
- Conserving strength for critical periods.
- Resting and sleeping as much as possible.
- Staying out of sight.
The following odors stand out and may give an evader away:
- Scented soaps and shampoos.
- Shaving cream, after-shave lotion, or other cosmetics.
- Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented).
- Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet).
- Tobacco (odor is unmistakable).
- Disturb any area you occupy as little as possible.
- Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy.
Apply personal camouflage using local vegetation as a model:
- Blotch pattern. Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas.
- Desert areas (barren).
- Snow (barren).
- Slash pattern. Coniferous areas (broad slashes).
- Jungle areas (broad slashes).
- Grass (narrow slashes).
- Combination. May use blotched and slash together.
Personal camouflage application:
- Face. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. Use a hat, netting, or mask if available.
- Ears. The insides and the backs should have two colors to break up outlines.
- Head, neck, hands, and the under chin. Use scarf, collar, vegetation, netting, or coloration methods.
- Light colored hair. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net.
Position and movement camouflage:
- Avoid unnecessary movement.
- Take advantage of natural concealment.
- Cut foliage fades and wilts, change regularly.
- Change camouflage depending on the surroundings.
- Do not select vegetation from same source.
- Use stains from grasses, berries, dirt, and charcoal.
- Do not over-camouflage.
- Remember when using shadows, they shift with the sun.
- Never expose shiny objects (like a watch, glasses, or pens).
- Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off.
- Remove unit patches, name tags, rank insignia, etc.
- Break up the outline of body “V’s” of the crotch/armpits/etc.
- Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position.
Use camouflage and concealment; Locate carefully. Remember BLISS:
Choose an area least likely to be searched (inaccessible drainage, rough terrain, etc.) that blends with the environment. Determine multiple escape routes (do not corner yourself). With observable approaches and work a range card for available weapons. Also:
- Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges, ditches, and rocks to keep from forming paths to site.
- Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons.
- Conceal with minimal to no preparation.
- Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter.
- Ensure overhead concealment.
- Booby-trap is possible.
- Moving objects are the easiest to spot.
- Use the military crest and avoid silhouetting.
- Restrict to periods of low light, bad weather, wind, or reduced enemy activity.
- At irregular intervals Stop at a point of concealment and Look for signs of human or animal activity (smoke, tracks, roads, troops, vehicles, aircraft, wire, buildings, etc.).
- Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel.
- Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight.
- Listen for vehicles, troops, aircraft, weapons, animals, etc.
- Smell for vehicles, troops, animals, fires, etc.
- Employ noise discipline; check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them.
- Break up the human shape or recognizable lines.
- Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel.
Concealing evidence of travel:
- Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level.
- Do not break branches, leaves, or grass.
- Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position.
- Do not grab small trees or brush. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. In snow country, this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route.)
- Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping).
- Do not overturn ground cover, rocks, and sticks.
- Do not scuff bark on logs and sticks.
- Do not make noise by breaking sticks. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this.)
- Do not mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back.
- Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by pacing tracks in the shadows of vegetation, downed logs, and snowdrifts. It mat also help if you move before and during precipitation to allow tracks to fill in.
- Travel during windy periods.
- Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs, rocks, etc.) leaving less evidence of travel.
- Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old.
- Secure trash or loose equipment and hide or bury discarded items (trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it.).
- Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs.
Penetrating and overcoming obstacles:
- Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury.
- Go around chain-link and wire fences. Go under fence if unavoidable, crossing at damaged areas. Do not touch fence without looking for electrical insulators or security devices.
- Penetrate rail fences or low walls by passing under or between lower rails/openings. If impractical, go over the top, presenting as low a silhouette as possible.
- Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes, shadows, bend in road, etc. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road.
- Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. Next, align body parallel to tracks with face down, cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. Repeat for the second track. A third track may mean one of the tracks are electrified.
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