Photo by Frank Michaux
To Do Today:
- PT – Cross train: Bike/Row/Swim for 60-90 min at low
to moderate intensity.
Thirst is not a strong enough sensation to determine how much water you need. The best plan is to drink water utilizing the OVER DRINK method. Drink plenty of water anytime it is available and particularly when eating.
Dehydration is a major threat. A loss of only 5 % of your body fluids causes thirst, irritability, nausea, and weakness; a 10% loss causes dizziness, headache, inability to walk, and a tingling sensation in limbs; a 15% loss causes dim vision, painful urination, swollen tongue, deafness, and a feeling of numbness in the skin; also a loss of more than 15% body fluids could result in death.
Your water requirements will be increased if:
- You have a fever.
- You are experiencing fear or anxiety.
- You evaporate more body fluid than necessary (i.e., not using the proper shelter to your advantage),
- You have improper clothing.
- You ration water.
- You overwork.
Collecting Incidental Water
During movement, you may have to ration water until you reach a reliable water source. Incidental water may sometimes provide opportunities to acquire water. Although not a reliable or replenished source, it may serve to stretch your water supply or keep you going in an emergency. The following are sources for incidental water:
- Dew. In areas with moderate to heavy dew, dew can be collected by tying rags or tuffs of fine grass around your ankles. While walking through dewy grass before sunrise, the rags or grass will saturate and can be rung out into a container. The rags or grass can be replaced and the process is repeated.
- Rainfall. Rainwater collected directly in clean container or in plants that contain no harmful toxins is generally safe to drink without disinfecting. The survivor should always be prepared to collect rainfall at a moments notice. An inverted poncho or tarp works well to collect rainfall.
The first choice for water should obviously be potable water from treated sources such as municipal water systems, proven well-water, etc. Potable only indicates that a water source, on average over a period of time, contains a minimal microbial hazard and likelihood of illness is acceptable. Tap water is not guaranteed to be safe in the event of a large scale emergency and should be disinfected or filtered as described below. If visible taps are dry, attempt to locate lower taps in depressed geography (i.e., homes/taps in lower locations) as water in pipes will naturally flow to lower places in the distribution system.
Almost all water without treatment, contains minerals, toxins, and pathogens. Some of these, consumed in large enough quantities may be harmful to human health. Pathogens are the primary concern. Pathogens are divided into Virus, Cysts, Bacteria, and Parasites. Certain pathogens are more resistant to chemicals and small enough to move through microscopic holes in equipment (i.e., T-shirt, parachute). Certain pathogens also have the ability to survive in extremely cold water temperatures. Pathogens generally do not live in snow and ice. The following methods can be used to improve water quality in a survival/SERE situation:
Water disinfection removes or destroys harmful microorganisms. Giardia cysts are an ever-present danger in even pristine surface water throughout the world. By drinking non-potable water you may contract diseases or swallow organisms that could harm you. Examples of such diseases or organisms are: Dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Flukes, and Leeches. Impure water, no matter how overpowering the thirst, is one of the worst hazards in a survival situation.
The first step in disinfecting is to select a treatment method. Two methods are as follows:
- Heat. You must bring the water to a rolling boil before it is considered safe for human consumption and is the most preferred method. Bringing water to the boiling point will kill 99.9% of all Giardia cysts. The Giardia cyst dies at 140F/60C and Cryptosporidium dies at 150F/65C.
- Chemicals. There are numerous types of chemicals that can disinfect water but some chemicals may not destroy Cryptosporidium. The most common are iodine tablets, chlorine bleach, iodine solution, and betadine solution. In a survival situation, you will use whatever you have available.
Water purification is the removal of organic and inorganic chemicals and particulate matter, including radioactive particles. While purification can eliminate offensive color, taste, and odor, it may not remove or kill microorganisms.
- Expedient Filtration. Filtration purifying is a process by which commercial manufacturers build water filters. The water filter is a three tier system. The first layer, or grass layer, removes the larger impurities. The second layer, or sand layer, removes the smaller impurities. The final layer, or charcoal layer (not the ash but charcoal from a fire), bonds and holds the toxins. All layers are placed on some type of straining device and the charcoal layer should be at least 5-6 inches thick. Layers should be changed frequently and straining material should be boiled. Remember, this is not a disinfecting method, cysts can possibly move through this system.
- Commercial Water Filtration. Understanding what a filter can do is the first step in safeguarding against illnesses so be sure to investigate the type and appropriate uses of your filter. A filter that has a .3 micron opening or larger will not stop Cryptosporidium. A filter system that does not release a chemical (i.e., iodine) may not kill all pathogens. A filter that has been overused may be clogged and usage may result in excessive pumping pressure that can move harmful pathogens through the opening.
Distillation of drinkable water using the solar still method can be used to reduce and eliminate toxins and harmful organisms. Solar stills are designed to supplement water reserves and contrary to belief, one solar still will most likely not provide enough fluid to meet the daily requirement for water. Build multiple units if possible.
Above-Ground Solar Still. This device allows the survivor to make water from vegetation.
To make the above-ground solar still, locate a sunny slope on which to place the still, a clear plastic bag, green leafy vegetation, and a small rock. Construction:
- Fill the bag with air by turning the opening into the breeze or by “scooping” air into the bag.
- Fill the bag half to three-quarters full of green leafy vegetation. Be sure to remove all hard sticks or sharp spines that might puncture the bag.
- Do not use poisonous vegetation. It will provide poisonous liquid.
- Place a small rock or similar item in the bag.
- Close the bag and tie the mouth securely as close to the end of the bag as possible to keep the maximum amount of air space. If you have a small piece of tubing, small straw, or hollow reed, insert one end in the mouth of the bag before tying it securely. Tie off or plug the tubing so that air will not escape. This tubing will allow you to drain out condensed water without untying the bag.
- Place the bag, mouth downhill, on a slope in full sunlight. Position the mouth of the bag slightly higher than the low point in the bag.
- Settle the bag in place so that the rock works itself into the low point in the bag.
- To get the condensed water from the still, loosen the tie and tip the bag so that the collected water will drain out. Retie the mouth and reposition the still to allow further condensation.
An above ground solar still.
- Change vegetation in the bag after extracting most of the water from it.
- Using several gallon ziploc bag instead of trash bags is a more efficient means of construction.
Below-Ground Solar Still. Materials consist of a digging stick, clear plastic sheet, container, rock, and a drinking tube.
- Select a site where you believe the soil will contain moisture (such as a dry stream bed or a low spot where rainwater has collected). The soil should be easy to dig, and will be exposed to sunlight.
- Dig a bowl-shaped hole about 1 meter across and 24 inches deep.
- Dig a sump in the center of the hole. The sump depth and perimeter will depend on the size of the container you have to place in it. The bottom of the sump should allow the container to stand upright.
- Anchor the tubing to the container’s bottom by forming a loose overhand knot in the tubing. Extend the unanchored end of the tubing up, over, and beyond the lip of the hole.
- Place the plastic sheet over the hole, covering its edges with soil to hold in place. Place a rock in the center of the plastic sheet.
- Lower the plastic sheet into the hole until it is about 18 inches below ground level. Make sure the cone’s apex is directly over the container. Ensure the plastic does not touch the sides of the hole because the earth will absorb the moisture.
- Put more soil on the edges of the plastic to hold it securely and prevent the loss of moisture.
- Plug the tube when not in use so that moisture will not evaporate.
- Plants can be placed in the hole as a moisture source. If so, dig out additional soil from the sides.
- If polluted water is the only moisture source, dig a small trough outside the hole about 10 inches from the still’s lip. Dig the trough about 10 inches deep and 3 inches wide. Pour the polluted water in the trough. Ensure you do not spill any polluted water around the rim of the hole where the plastic touches the soil. The trough holds the polluted water and the soil filters it as the still draws it. This process works well when the only water source is salt water.
- Three stills will be needed to meet the individual daily water intake needs.
Preparing a below ground solar still
Sedimentation is the separation of suspended particles large enough to settle rapidly by gravity. The time required depends on the size of the particle. Generally, 1 hour is adequate if the water is allowed to sit without agitation. After sediment has formed on the bottom of the container, the clear water is decanted or filtered from the top. Microorganisms, especially cysts, eventually settle, but this takes longer and the organisms are easily disturbed during pouring or filtering. Sedimentation should not be considered a means of disinfection and should be used only as a last resort or in an extreme tactical situation.
Survivors have occasionally attempted to augment their water supply with other fluids, such as alcoholic beverages, urine, blood, or seawater. While it is true that each of these fluids has a high water content, the impurities they contain may require the body to expend more fluid to purify them. Some hazardous fluids are:
- Sea water. Sea water in more than minimal quantities is actually toxic. The concentration of sodium and magnesium salts is so high that fluid must be drawn from the body to eliminate the salts and eventually the kidneys cease to function.
- Alcohol. Alcohol dehydrates the body and clouds judgment. Super-cooled liquid, if ingested, can cause immediate frostbite of the throat, and potential death.
- Blood. Blood, besides being salty, is a food. Drinking it will require the body to expend additional fluid to digest it.
- Urine. Drinking urine is not only foolish, but also dangerous. Urine is nothing more than the body’s waste. Drinking it only places this waste back into the body, which requires more fluid to process it again.
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